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The Evolution of Medical Views on Exercise

Worthington Hooker

Hooker, Worthington, Human Physiology: designed for Colleges and the Higher Classes in Schools, and for General Reading, New York: Sheldon and Company, 1866.

Definition Objective

Increases the circulation as evidenced by the increase of perspiration on exercise.  If muscular effort is great, the circulation is violent and tumultuous, the heart beats strongly and rapidly & the flushed faces shows the activity of circulation in the capillaries.  Exercise is essential to the proper development of the body, gives strength and firmness to the muscles, bones, ligaments, veins, skin, internal organs.  Exercise makes the stomach digest better, lungs work better, & the brain serve the mind more easily and effectually.  In reference to respiration and the increased heat of exercise: Exercise makes more wear and tear, and so disengages in the waste more carbon and hydrogen to unite with the increased amount of oxygen that comes in the quickly flowing blood to the capillaries; and just as in combustion that is attended with flame, the greater the amount of fuel, the greater is the heat. Exercise can prevent deformity.

Hooker, 395-396, 398, 402.

Frequency Type / Mode 

Occasional?, Exercise should be daily & habitual, not occasional.

Hooker, 396, 405.

In action of the muscles, variety is important, general exercise is necessary to ensure symmetrical muscular development & the full attainment of the invigorating effects of exercise.  Gymnastics, calisthenics, walking, running, leaping, horse back riding, dancing, active spots, gardening.

Hooker,   404.

Duration Time of Day  Intensity

A certain amount of muscular exercise is necessary for health, to fall below this (undefined) amount will lead to ill health, but one can go beyond it without injury.

Hooker, 402.

 

It is necessary that some of the exercise is strong enough to excite the circulation.

Hooker, 405.

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