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Wide, Anders, MD, Hand-Book of Medical and Orthopedic Gymnastics, New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1902.
Definitions according to P.H. Ling: Pedagogical Gymnastics— by which we learn to place our body under our own control, Military gym-- by which we try, through some object exterior to ourselves (weapons) or by our own physical power, to subject a second exterior will to our own will, Medical gym.-- by which, either alone, in a suitable position, or with the assistance of others, we try by means of influencing movements to alleviate or overcome the sufferings that have arisen in our body through its abnormal condition, aesthetic gym.-- try to physically exemplify our inner being— our thoughts and feelings.
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