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The Evolution of Medical Views on Exercise

Chris Caldwell

Caldwell, Charles MD, Thoughts on Physical Education: being a Discourse delivered to a convention of Teachers in Lexington, KY. on the 6th and 7th of Nov. 1833, Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1834.

Definition Objective

Strengthens the stomach, a well-directed exercise invigorates and improves every form of living matter, physical education not just for prevention of disease but also raising man to the summit of his nature. Physical education of the brain strengthens the moral and intellectual organs, by exciting them to action, each in a manner corresponding to its nature, and to weaken comparatively the animal organs, by restraining their action. Treatment of dyspepsia.

Caldwell, 36, 56, 82, 85, 99.

Frequency Type / Mode 

Crying, singing, walking & horseback riding are good exercises for females, Carriage-riding, gymnastics, football, handball, swimming, fencing, dancing, swinging by the arms, dumb-bells.

Caldwell, 39, 60, 62-5.

Duration Time of Day  Intensity


Not very severe, should not induce fatigue.

Caldwell, 63.

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