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The Evolution of Medical Views on Exercise

James Johnson

Johnson, James, The Influence of Civic Life, Sedentary Habits, and Intellectual Refinement on Human Health, and Human Happiness, Philadelphia, Thomas Hope, 1820.

Definition Objective

Exercise (carriage or horse exercise) as an aid in counteracting or retarding the deleterious effects of intemperance

Give muscles tone and strength, which extends to the organs of digestion, circulate the blood & other juices, promote the various secretions

A deficiency of exercise leads to — paleness or sallowness of the countenance, languor of mind and body, timidity, nervousness, accumulation of fat in the abdomen, dropsical swellings in the limbs, palpitations of the heart, head-aches

Johnson, 36, 44, 80.

Frequency Type / Mode 


Johnson, 41-42.

Stretch muscles by active exercise, going up and down stairs, using dumb bells, the swing, horse & carriage exercise

Johnson, 81-82.

Duration Time of Day  Intensity
One hour

Early in the morning, late at night, or at some period of the day

Johnson, 81.


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